Solution Architecture

The StarkWare services are composed of the following components:

High-level Architecture

Shared Prover (SHARP) and Verifier

The Shared Prover, SHARP provides the infrastructure to support scalable applications. SHARP generates proofs to computational integrity statements. These proofs are submitted on-chain to the Verifier smart contract. The Verifier smart contract then stores the hash of every valid statement in a dedicated fact registry.


SHARP and the Verifier smart contract provide a service developed and maintained by StarkWare to serve customers according to their dedicated logic (e.g., to support an Exchange).

The state achieved by a customer's application is committed on the application's dedicated Ethereum-based smart contract.

Note, typically, only the hash of the state is kept on-chain. To enforce the trustless nature of the system, the on-chain state can only be updated by a proof attesting to the validity of the state transition. StarkWare's SHARP provides this proof.

The high-level responsibilities of the StarkWare Applications are:

1. Process Requests:

StarkWare Applications process customer requests, transform these transactions into provable statements, and send these to SHARP. All via an intuitive customer API (step 1 in the diagram).

Typically, several requests are batched together into a single statement (step 2 in the diagram). For example, a batch can compile 1000 financial transactions to be sent for proving.

2. Prove with SHARP

SHARP constructs the proof.

3. Register the Proof

SHARP transmits the proof to the on-chain Verifier smart contract (step 3 in the diagram).

4. Register the State Transition

StarkWare Applications then apply the state transition on the customer application's smart contract (step 4 in the diagram).

To ensure the transition's validity (i.e., that SHARP verified it), the customer application's smart contract corroborates that the transition statement is registered in the Verifier smart contract (step 5 in the diagram).

See more on StarkWare Exchange applications.