Solution Architecture

The StarkWare services are composed of the following components:

High-level Architecture

starkware arch highlevel

Shared Prover (SHARP) and Verifier

The Shared Prover, SHARP provides the infrastructure to support scalable applications. SHARP generates proofs to computational integrity statements. These proofs are submitted on-chain to the Verifier smart contract. The Verifier smart contract then stores the hash of every valid statement in a dedicated fact registry.


SHARP and the Verifier smart contract provide a service developed and maintained by StarkWare to serve customers according to their dedicated logic, such as supporting an Exchange.

The state achieved by a customer’s application is committed on the application’s dedicated Ethereum-based smart contract.

Typically, only the hash of the state is kept on-chain. To enforce the trustless nature of the system, the on-chain state can only be updated by a proof attesting to the validity of the state transition. StarkWare’s SHARP provides this proof.

At a high-level, StarkWare Applications do the following:

  1. Process Requests

    StarkWare Applications process customer requests, transform these transactions into provable statements, and send these to SHARP. All via an intuitive customer API (step 1 in the diagram).

    Typically, several requests are batched together into a single statement (step 2 in the diagram). For example, a batch can compile 1000 financial transactions to be sent for proving.

  2. Prove with SHARP

    SHARP constructs the proof.

  3. Register the Proof

    SHARP transmits the proof to the on-chain Verifier smart contract (step 3 in the diagram).

  4. Register the State Transition

    StarkWare Applications then apply the state transition on the customer application’s smart contract (step 4 in the diagram).

    To ensure the transition’s validity (i.e., that SHARP verified it), the customer application’s smart contract corroborates that the transition statement is registered in the Verifier smart contract (step 5 in the diagram).

Additional resources